How did knowledge spread in Galileo’s world?
Johann Schreck joined the Jesuit order in 1611, the same year that he used Galileo's telescope to observe the satellites of Jupiter. Upon becoming a Jesuit, Schreck joined the Jesuit mission in China, taking with him a scientific library of approximately 7,000 volumes as well as a Galilean telescope. Schreck's story is the beginning of a century-long exchange of scientific ideas between Europe and Asia.
What are your favorite constellations?
This beautiful star atlas fused artistic beauty and scientific precision, the last of the four major star atlases in which artful depictions of constellation figures appear alongside the most up to date scientific information. Bode was director of the Observatory of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.
William Schickard, a friend of Kepler’s, designed this “astroscopium,” a model intermediate between a planisphere and a celestial globe, to calculate the positions of the stars for any day and hour of the year. Use this learning leaflet to construct your own astroscopium.
Plate #1 - DOWNLOAD Hemisphere #1
Plate #2 - DOWNLOAD Hemisphere #2
Are they talking about physics as they stroll through the garden?
At a time when very few scientists were capable even of reading Newton's masterwork of physics, the "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy," Madame du Châtelet mastered it and translated it into French. She also defended Newton in the Newton-Leibniz controversy.
Suggested activities to be used in conjunction with Constellation Coloring Pages and Card Sets.
- Bode Learning Leaflet | Bode Coloring Pages | Bode Original plates
- Urania's Mirror Learning Leaflet | Urania's Mirror card set (full page) | Urania's Mirror card set (half page)
The night sky looks like an upside-down bowl set on the horizon, but as it turns around during the night it is easy to think of it as a giant sphere. Think of the stars as bright points of light lying on the inside surface of a giant celestial sphere. This sphere rotates around us once a day. A model of the sky as a celestial globe explains the appearances of the sky with simplicity and elegance. Learn more about celestial globes with this learning leaflet.
What objects would you include in your own scientific portrait?
Margaret Bryan was a schoolmistress for a boarding school for girls in London, in which she taught mathematics and science. She also published several popular scientific textbooks on astronomy, geography, and natural philosophy.
Although many attribute this iconic image to the Middle Ages, it first appeared in a 19th century work of meteorology. So it's fitting that this book opened a Galileo's World exhibit at the National Weather Center on Copernicus and Meteorology.
Ever wish there were a colorized version available in a suitable resolution which educators and anyone could freely use? Susanna J. Magruder created the colorized version of Flammarion's woodcut shown above, which she is distributing with a CC-by license. Enjoy! You can put it on your website, a t-shirt, a coffee mug, or print out a copy on quality paper for your wall.
Two decades ago, in 1996, Susanna's father Kerry Magruder prepared a small website telling the story of the above woodcut and tracing its first appearance to Camille Flammarion in 1888. That old website remains available, largely unchanged (and frequently copied around the web): "This is not a medieval woodcut." It explores the image as visual rhetoric, concluding that its enduring appeal lies not so much in the flat Earth myth but as an icon of our common quest of discovery and exploration, the challenge of "boldly going where no one has gone before."
Black and white version: Color your own.
Related OER: "Boldly Explore" Learning Leaflet.
Camille Flammarion, L'Atmosphere: Météorologie Populaire (Paris, 1888), p. 163. Colorized by Susanna J. Magruder. Courtesy History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries. CC-by.
Coma Berenices is the only one of the modern 88 official constellations named after a historical figure. It represents the hair of Berenice, Queen of Egypt (267 221 BCE), who reigned with Ptolemy III Euergetes. Learn more about this in this learning leaflet.
Each day and night, the fixed stars appear to rotate around the earth like a giant celestial sphere. Just like the Sun, they rise in the east and set in the west. The daily motion of the entire sky, rising from the east, setting in the west, rotating around the north pole, is called the diurnal motion. Learn more about diurnal motion in this learning leaflet.