In this remarkable book, Regiomontanus predicted the positions of the Sun and Moon for 40 years. He designed a sundial to work independently of one︎'s latitude, and a volvelle, or circular dial, to locate the position and phase of the Moon according to date and time. Books became observing instruments in their own right.
In the work, Harmony of the Universe, Kepler integrated theoretical astronomy and music, ,showing that the motions of the planets employ the same numerical ratios as the most harmonious scales. Kepler's "harmonic law" still describes how planets and stars and satellites and galaxies revolve around one another in space.
Learn more about Kepler's "harmonic law" and its modern realizations in this learning leaflet.
Each day and night, the fixed stars appear to rotate around the earth like a giant celestial sphere. Just like the Sun, they rise in the east and set in the west. The daily motion of the entire sky, rising from the east, setting in the west, rotating around the north pole, is called the diurnal motion. Learn more about diurnal motion in this learning leaflet.
The night sky looks like an upside-down bowl set on the horizon, but as it turns around during the night it is easy to think of it as a giant sphere. Think of the stars as bright points of light lying on the inside surface of a giant celestial sphere. This sphere rotates around us once a day. A model of the sky as a celestial globe explains the appearances of the sky with simplicity and elegance. Learn more about celestial globes with this learning leaflet.
William Schickard, a friend of Kepler’s, designed this “astroscopium,” a model intermediate between a planisphere and a celestial globe, to calculate the positions of the stars for any day and hour of the year. Use this learning leaflet to construct your own astroscopium.
Plate #1 - DOWNLOAD Hemisphere #1
Plate #2 - DOWNLOAD Hemisphere #2
Identify six common constellations by their star patterns.
Urania's Mirror was a set of 32 constellation cards designed to aid in identifying the constellations by distinguishing between star patterns and constellation figures. This set includes six constellations, selected so that at least one of them is visible (in the northern hemisphere) at any time of the year. Holes punched in the positions of bright stars allow one to hold any card up to a light and compare the star pattern with the constellation figure.
OERs in this set:
- Six Constellations
- Constellation tubes
- Urania's Mirror Learning Leaflet
For the Galileo’s World exhibition, Jonathan A. Annis, a graduate student in the OU School of Music, worked as co-curator of the Music of the Spheres gallery. In this role he composed a suite for harp, flute (doubling alto flute) and oboe (doubling English horn) entirely comprised of musical themes from Kepler’s Harmonices mundi. Annis arranged the themes, but they derive from Kepler’s musical description of the harmonic law. In this piece, Kepler’s universe becomes a cosmic dance. Visitors to the Music of the Spheres gallery during the Galileo's World exhibition were able to listen to a short excerpt of the suite on an iPad kiosk. (Background. Learning Leaflet.) CC-by-sa-nc.
A children’s book, The Story of How the Constellation ‘Hoot the Owl’ Began, was written and Illustrated by Anna Todd (2017), a 2nd grade student at Rose Witcher Elementary School, El Reno Public Schools, located in El Reno, Oklahoma. The book developed in collaboration with Stacey Stephenson and was inspired by the Galileo's World exhibition (backstory).
The phases of Venus were an item of discussion in early modern Europe as scientists sought to determine whether it was evidence of the heliocentric system. Yet among the scientists it was anything but conclusive that this evidence proved the sun-centered universe. Learn more in this learning leaflet.
This work, written by a Kyoto physician, represents Asian astronomy in the generation following Adam Schall. Baba countered superstitious interpretations of solar eclipses, and used magnetic theory rather than yin and yang to explain the tides. Baba adopted the Tychonic model of cosmology. His book exemplifies the circulation of knowledge in East Asia and the interplay between Asian and European ideas.
It is often thought that Galileo's discovery of the phases of venus demonstrated the contested heliocentric model of the universe. However, such an understanding is overly simplistic of the early modern account of astronomy. Use this learning leaflet to learn more.
Coma Berenices is the only one of the modern 88 official constellations named after a historical figure. It represents the hair of Berenice, Queen of Egypt (267 221 BCE), who reigned with Ptolemy III Euergetes. Learn more about this in this learning leaflet.
The story of Galileo’s trial in 1633 intertwines two crucial earlier episodes:
1. Galileo’s encounter with the Inquisition in 1616; and
2. Publication of Galileo’s Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World in 1632.
Learn more about them in this learning leaflet.
The three most famous banned books of the Copernican revolution, listed in chronological order, are On the Revolutions of Copernicus (1543); a Commentary on the biblical book of Job by Zúñiga, a theologian in Salamanca; and a Letter in defense of Copernicus by the Carmelite monk Paolo Foscarini. Use this learning leaflet to learn more about them.
“What was it like when art and astronomy were intertwined?”
Leonardo da Vinci, Albrecht Dürer, Lorenzo Sirigatti, Galileo... what joins them together? Why is Galileo's Starry Messenger (1610) displayed alongside Giorgio Vasari's Lives of Eminent Painters and Sculptors?
Galileo’s scientific discoveries occurred in the context of a specific artistic culture which possessed sophisticated mathematical techniques for drawing with linear perspective and handling light and shadow.
Do you know someone who received a telescope for Christmas? There's no better way to begin looking through a telescope than to ponder the way Galileo's professional training as an artist prepared him to make his astronomical discoveries.
In the Galileo’s World exhibition, four galleries took their point of departure from Galileo’s Starry Messenger (Sidereus nuncius, 1610):
• Galileo and Perspective Drawing
• Galileo and the Telescope
• The Moon and the Telescope
• The Sky at Night
These distinct but overlapping galleries were on physical display in different places and combinations during the course of the Galileo’s World exhibition, most notably at the National Weather Center and the Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art. Various books from these galleries are part of the current Rotating Display and the "The Sky Tonight reprise" gallery, including Galileo’s Starry Messenger itself.
Use this handout to aid you in you as you walk through the 2017 Rotating Display and The Sky at Night reprise gallery.
Although many attribute this iconic image to the Middle Ages, it first appeared in a 19th century work of meteorology. So it's fitting that this book opened a Galileo's World exhibit at the National Weather Center on Copernicus and Meteorology.
Ever wish there were a colorized version available in a suitable resolution which educators and anyone could freely use? Susanna J. Magruder created the colorized version of Flammarion's woodcut shown above, which she is distributing with a CC-by license. Enjoy! You can put it on your website, a t-shirt, a coffee mug, or print out a copy on quality paper for your wall.
Two decades ago, in 1996, Susanna's father Kerry Magruder prepared a small website telling the story of the above woodcut and tracing its first appearance to Camille Flammarion in 1888. That old website remains available, largely unchanged (and frequently copied around the web): "This is not a medieval woodcut." It explores the image as visual rhetoric, concluding that its enduring appeal lies not so much in the flat Earth myth but as an icon of our common quest of discovery and exploration, the challenge of "boldly going where no one has gone before."
Black and white version: Color your own.
Related OER: "Boldly Explore" Learning Leaflet.
Camille Flammarion, L'Atmosphere: Météorologie Populaire (Paris, 1888), p. 163. Colorized by Susanna J. Magruder. Courtesy History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries. CC-by.
Suggested activities to be used in conjunction with Constellation Coloring Pages and Card Sets.
- Bode Learning Leaflet | Bode Coloring Pages | Bode Original plates
- Urania's Mirror Learning Leaflet | Urania's Mirror card set (full page) | Urania's Mirror card set (half page)
What are your favorite constellations?
This beautiful star atlas fused artistic beauty and scientific precision, the last of the four major star atlases in which artful depictions of constellation figures appear alongside the most up to date scientific information. Bode was director of the Observatory of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.
Johann Bode, director of the Observatory of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, produced the last of the four major celestial atlases in which artful depictions of constellation figures appear alongside the most up-to-date scientific data. 20 large copperplate engravings plot more than 17,000 stars, far more than any previous atlas. Bode included new stars for the southern hemisphere, along with constellations recently invented by Hevelius and Lacaille. Bode depicted more than 100 constellations, compared with 88 officially recognized today. Some which appeared in this atlas for the first time, but are not officially recognized today, include the Cat, the Printing Press, the Montgolfier Balloon, and the Electric Generator.
This coloring book, produced by the OU Academy of the Lynx, was made from images in Bode's book.
In order to understand the history of a book, it is important to understand the structure and organization of a book - it's anatomy. This learning leaflet explains the basic parts of a book through some simple exercises.
Included in this learning leaflet are three parts:
(1) Introduction - DOWNLOAD
(2) Activity - DOWNLOAD
What are your favorite constellations?
Urania's Mirror was a set of constellation cards designed to aid in the teaching and learning of constellations. This set includes 32 cards, each focused upon one or a few constellations. Holes punched in the positions of bright stars allow one to hold any card up to a light and compare the star pattern with the constellation figure. This is the half-page set.
OERs in this set:
- Urania's Mirror Learning Leaflet
- Urania's Mirror card set (full page)
- Urania's Mirror card set (half page)
- Constellation Activities