Galileo's World

The Bible and Science: Calvin, Newton & Other Writers

The Bible and Science-Calvin, Newton & Other Writers

How have people understood the relationship between the Bible and Science?

Quotations from various important Christian interpreters about the relationship between the Bible and Science. Aimed at helping learners differentiate between four key frameworks of relating the Bible and Science.


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The Sundial: An Introduction

Bernardino Baldi, Nova gnomonices

A sundial consists of a gnomon, which casts the Sun's shadow, and a dial on which the shadow indicates the time. Learn more about sundials in this learning leaflet.


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Boldly Explore: Camille Flammarion (1888)

Colorized version of Camille Flammarion

Although many attribute this iconic image to the Middle Ages, it first appeared in a 19th century work of meteorology. So it's fitting that this book opened a Galileo's World exhibit at the National Weather Center on Copernicus and Meteorology.

Ever wish there were a colorized version available in a suitable resolution which educators and anyone could freely use? Susanna J. Magruder created the colorized version of Flammarion's woodcut shown above, which she is distributing with a CC-by license. Enjoy! You can put it on your website, a t-shirt, a coffee mug, or print out a copy on quality paper for your wall.

Two decades ago, in 1996, Susanna's father Kerry Magruder prepared a small website telling the story of the above woodcut and tracing its first appearance to Camille Flammarion in 1888. That old website remains available, largely unchanged (and frequently copied around the web): "This is not a medieval woodcut." It explores the image as visual rhetoric, concluding that its enduring appeal lies not so much in the flat Earth myth but as an icon of our common quest of discovery and exploration, the challenge of "boldly going where no one has gone before."

Black and white version:  Color your own.  

Related OER:  "Boldly Explore" Learning Leaflet.


Camille Flammarion, L'Atmosphere: Météorologie Populaire (Paris, 1888), p. 163. Colorized by Susanna J. Magruder. Courtesy History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries.  CC-by.

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Madame du Châtelet: Newtonian Physicist

 Madame du Châtelet Learning Leaflet

Are they talking about physics as they stroll through the garden? 

At a time when very few scientists were capable even of reading Newton's masterwork of physics, the "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy," Madame du Châtelet mastered it and translated it into French. She also defended Newton in the Newton-Leibniz controversy. 


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Six Cosmological Systems: Phases of Venus

Kircher-Cosmological Systems-Venus

It is often thought that Galileo's discovery of the phases of venus demonstrated the contested heliocentric model of the universe. However, such an understanding is overly simplistic of the early modern account of astronomy. Use this learning leaflet to learn more.


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Urania's Mirror: Constellation Cards

Urania's Mirror Learning Leaflet

What are your favorite constellations?

Urania's Mirror was a set of constellation cards designed to aid in the teaching and learning of constellations. This set includes 32 cards, each focused upon one or a few constellations. Holes punched in the positions of bright stars allow one to hold any card up to a light and compare the star pattern with the constellation figure.

OERs in this set:  


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Zodiacal Motion: An Introduction

Johann Bayer, Uranometria

Against the background of the daily diurnal motion, the outer planets have an additional slow motion called their Zodiacal (or "direct") motion. Stars are fixed in relative position, but planets move slowly from west to east. Learn more about zodiacal motion in this learning leaflet.


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Art and Astronomy Walking Tour

Art and Astronomy Walking Tour

“What was it like when art and astronomy were intertwined?”

Leonardo da Vinci, Albrecht Dürer, Lorenzo Sirigatti, Galileo... what joins them together?  Why is Galileo's Starry Messenger (1610) displayed alongside Giorgio Vasari's Lives of Eminent Painters and Sculptors

Galileo’s scientific discoveries occurred in the context of a specific artistic culture which possessed sophisticated mathematical techniques for drawing with linear perspective and handling light and shadow.

Do you know someone who received a telescope for Christmas? There's no better way to begin looking through a telescope than to ponder the way Galileo's professional training as an artist prepared him to make his astronomical discoveries.

In the Galileo’s World exhibition, four galleries took their point of departure from Galileo’s Starry Messenger (Sidereus nuncius, 1610):  
• Galileo and Perspective Drawing  
• Galileo and the Telescope   
• The Moon and the Telescope   
• The Sky at Night

These distinct but overlapping galleries were on physical display in different places and combinations during the course of the Galileo’s World exhibition, most notably at the National Weather Center and the Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art.  Various books from these galleries are part of the current Rotating Display and the "The Sky Tonight reprise" gallery, including Galileo’s Starry Messenger itself.

Use this handout to aid you in you as you walk through the 2017 Rotating Display and The Sky at Night reprise gallery.


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Maria Cunitz: Kepler's Defender

Maria Cunitz Learning Leaflet

How important in science is usability? 

Prior to Newton, perhaps half a dozen astronomers accepted Kepler s three laws. Galileo was typical in ignoring Kepler s accomplishments. Yet this beautiful book is an exception. Maria Cunitz was not only one of the first astronomers to adopt Johann Kepler's astronomy, but because of the usability of her tables, she made the accuracy of Kepler's laws easy to grasp. 


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Orion: Baba, Nobutake (1706)

Orion China Learning Leaflet

This work, written by a Kyoto physician, represents Asian astronomy in the generation following Adam Schall. Baba countered superstitious interpretations of solar eclipses, and used magnetic theory rather than yin and yang to explain the tides. Baba adopted the Tychonic model of cosmology. His book exemplifies the circulation of knowledge in East Asia and the interplay between Asian and European ideas.


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