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Christoph Clavius, In sphaeram Ionnis de Sacro Bosco commentarius (Rome, 1570)

Commentary on the Sphere of Sacrobosco

Clavius taught mathematical astronomy in the Rome College (Collegio Romano), the leading Jesuit university in Rome.  See Three Jesuit Portraits:  Loyola, Bellarmine, Clavius.

Aristotle did not emphasize mathematics, but Clavius’ lifelong work established mathematics and astronomy as essential areas of study for Jesuit schools. Clavius’ Commentary on Sacrobosco became the standard astronomical text of its time, published in many editions.

In his 1593 edition, Clavius introduced an additional solid sphere to accommodate a motion attributed to the Earth’s axis by Copernicus.

Galileo's World Exhibition Location

Source: History of Science Collections

Section: Systems of the World

Section Number: 1

Object Number: 4

Subject Area(s): Astronomy, Mathematics, Education

Time Period: 16th Century

Region(s): Europe, Germany, Italy

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Phases of Venus: Riccioli, New Almagest

Phases of Venus-Riccioli

The phases of Venus were an item of discussion in early modern Europe as scientists sought to determine whether it was evidence of the heliocentric system. Yet among the scientists it was anything but conclusive that this evidence proved the sun-centered universe. Learn more in this learning leaflet.


Six Cosmological Systems: Phases of Venus

Kircher-Cosmological Systems-Venus

It is often thought that Galileo's discovery of the phases of venus demonstrated the contested heliocentric model of the universe. However, such an understanding is overly simplistic of the early modern account of astronomy. Use this learning leaflet to learn more.


Elisabeth Hevelius: Observational Astronomer

Elisabeth Hevelius Learning Leaflet

How does the Sextant symbolize the person who worked on the famed Hevelius star catalog and star atlas throughout its production, from observation to publication? 

Elisabeth Hevelius, wife of Johann Hevelius, was an astronomer in her own right. They worked together in the observatory of their Gdansk home to measure angular widths and distances with a great sextant, which required two observers at a time. The Sextant was among the new constellations they proposed in Uranographia (1690), the most detailed and influential celestial atlas of the 17th century. The Uranographia contains 54 beautiful double page engraved plates of 73 constellations, and 2 oversized folding plates of planispheres.